Did the horrors and the human toll of that indelible, infamous day fundamentally change American life?
It was a brief moment of American moral supremacy. Yet by launching armed aggression, first against Afghanistan and then against Iraq, America wholly squandered this gain. The aggression led to a tide of anti-Americanism and surge of support for fanatical Islamism across the Muslim world.
The wars cost tens of thousands of lives and caused mass destruction. The billions of dollars expended on them was financed largely from borrowing, which in turn has destabilised the world economy.
He saw widespread hostility towards the west and its aggressive behaviour in the Muslim world. Civil liberties were curbed and governments reverted to cold war paranoia.
America was again the great Satan. The peace dividend so eagerly awaited at the end of the 20th century evaporated as the security industry exploited counter-terrorism and seized every chance of profit and risk aversion. Bin Laden became a role model for fanatics everywhere.
For Americans it genuinely was a new Pearl Harbour, an attack on the homeland that made them feel vulnerable for the first time in 60 years. It turned an administration with quasi-isolationist tendencies into one committed to robust intervention overseas.
The outcome was a new focus on combating global terrorism, particularly al-Qaida. Huge new resources were thrown into the battle. The group has since been unable to mount so spectacular an attack again.
The Arab spring has now rendered it almost irrelevant. In retrospect, perhaps the west put too much effort into the physical battle against international terrorism and not enough into addressing the grievances the extremists were able to exploit, particularly the failure to advance peace in the Middle East.
The destruction of the twin towers graphically illustrated the dark side of globalisation. Terrorists used the tools of a modern global society, the internet, open borders and hi-tech aeroplanes, to attack the west at home. Fortunately, they failed to provoke our societies into closing their borders and hunkering down at home and instead we reacted with a greater willingness to engage internationally.
The attack gave birth to an unprecedented universal coalition of revulsion. That consensus fragmented over Iraq. Divisions over Afghanistan, Libya and Syria show that it has not yet been rebuilt. I hope one day it can be recaptured without a repeat of the appalling tragedy that first brought it into being.
American drones hovering over Pakistan's northern areas are programmed to work with the same logic: When United States decided to outsource part of its "war of terror" to Pakistan's military establishment, it effectively sealed the fate of democracy in the country for a decade.
When George W Bush embraced General Pervez Musharraf he was doing exactly what his predecessors had done when they propped up another military dictator, General Zia-ul-Haqto fight the Soviets in Afghanistan. We all know how that turned out.
Taliban fighters are mujahideen's orphaned children, and they believe that American innocence is nothing but a well-rehearsed pose.
Even the Taliban's victims concur. But those bombs fell on Pakistan. And when they didn't fall from the sky, they blew up in mosques and bazaars. Pakistanis are too poor to go and seek treatment for post traumatic stress disorder.
They also realise that the trauma is far from over. When army generals and their cheerleaders talk about Afghanistan's end game people see a series of random slaughters across their land.
There is no dearth of western academic sneering at bewildered Pakistanis and telling them that they brought it upon themselves.
Al-Qaida has been a non-factor in the Arab spring.9/11 was the moment where Americans lost their sense of security and invincibility because a few terrorists showed that with minimal means they could still strike a significant blow to the US on home soil.
Many countries introduced anti terrorism laws. On 9/11, our country and Canada set up Operation Yellow Ribbon. All planes bound for the US, were forced to land in Canada instead. A decade after the single deadliest attack on United States soil, how have the events of 9/11 changed America?
That was the central question put to expert panelists by moderator Michael Krasny, host of KQED’s “Forum,” at a roundtable discussion Thursday to mark the 10th anniversary of the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.C. What impact did 9/11 have on the world? 9/11 changed America fundamentally, far more so than outsiders realised at the time.
climate change, even when the governments are telling the truth. But 9/11 did not change the world such that new principles are required to protect America. We are still a people who desire the exercise self-government at home and independence abroad.
September 11, , marks the ten-year anniversary of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Ad Policy Ten years have passed, and there is still much to grieve.