Percentage of population which is urbanized, by country, in year The base of the word is the Latin urbs, which means city. The term urbanisation means that lifestyle that is common in a city becomes prevalent.
Neolithic-era domestication of plants and animals eventually led to improved Urbanization cities of cultivation and stock breeding, which eventually produced a surplus and made it possible to sustain a higher population density while also freeing up some… The definition of what constitutes a city changes from time to time and place to place, but it is most usual to explain the term as a matter of demographics.
The United Nations has recommended that countries regard all places with more than 20, inhabitants living close together as urban; but, in fact, nations compile their statistics on the basis of many different standards.
Whatever the numerical definition, it is clear that the course of human history has been marked by a process of accelerated urbanization.
It was not until the Neolithic period, roughly 10, years ago, that humans were able to form permanent settlements. Even 5, years ago the only such settlements on the globe were small, semipermanent villages of peasant farmers, towns whose size was limited by the fact that they had to move whenever the soil nearby was exhausted.
It was not until the time of classical antiquity that cities of more thanexisted, and even these did not become common until the sustained population explosion of the last three Urbanization cities.
The little towns of ancient civilizations, both in the Old World and the New, were only possible because of improvements in agriculture and transportation. As farming became more productive, it produced a surplus of food.
The development of means of transportation, dating from the invention of the wheel in about bc, made it possible for the surplus from the countryside to feed urban populations, a system that continues to the present day.
Despite the small size of these villages, the people in early towns lived quite close together. Distances could be no greater than an easy walk, and nobody could live out of the range of the water supply.
In addition, because cities were constantly subject to attack, they were quite often walled, and it was difficult to extend barricades over a large area.
Archaeological excavations have suggested that the population density in the cities of bc may have been as much asper square mile 49, per square km ; by contrast, the present cities of Calcutta and Shanghaiwith densities of more than 70, per square mile, are regarded as extremes of overcrowding.
With few exceptions, the elite—the aristocrats, government officials, clergy, and the wealthy—lived in the centre of ancient cities, which was usually located near the most important temple. Farther out were the poor, who were sometimes displaced beyond the city walls altogether.
The greatest city of antiquity was Romewhich at its height in the 3rd century ad covered almost 4 square miles 10 square km and had at leastinhabitants. To provide for this enormous population, the empire constructed a system of aqueducts that channeled drinking water from hills as far away as 44 miles 70 km.
Inside the city itself, the water was pumped to individual homes through a remarkable network of conduits and lead pipes, the equal of which was not seen until the 20th century.
As in most early cities, Roman housing was initially built from dried clay molded about wooden frameworks. As the city grew, it began to include structures made from mud, brick, concrete, and, eventually, finely carved marble. This general model of city structure continued until the advent of the Industrial Revolutionalthough medieval towns were rarely as large as Rome.
In the course of time, commerce became an increasingly important part of city life and one of the magnets that drew people from the countryside. With the invention of the mechanical clock, the windmill and water mill, and the printing pressthe interconnection of city inhabitants continued apace.From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The Gilded Age & the Progressive Era (–) Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays.
Today Asia accounts for 5 of the largest 6 cities in the world. By , China and India will account for half of the world's megacities. According to economic historian, Angus Maddison, China and. Urbanization has the potential to usher in a new era of well-being, resource efficiency and economic growth.
But cities are also home to high concentrations of poverty. Nowhere is the rise of inequality clearer than in urban areas, where wealthy communities coexist alongside, and separate from, slums and informal settlements.
Latest Resilient cities news, comment and analysis from the Guardian, the world's leading liberal voice. leslutinsduphoenix.com: Cities with Invisible Walls: Reinterpreting Urbanization in Post China (): Kam Wing Chan: Books.
An increase in a population in cities and towns versus rural areas. Urbanization began during the industrial revolution, when workers moved towards manufacturing hubs in cities to obtain jobs in factories as agricultural jobs became less common.